How to install Apache Server, MySQL,PHP,phpmyadmin on linux

We will learn how to install Apache 2 web server with php, MySQL and phpmyadmin on Linux.For this Post i am will be using Ubuntu 12.4 but you can use any linux ditro.

Lets Start.Open up the command terminal in Linux and type “sudo apt-get install update” this will update the repository in ubuntu,After this type this command to install Apache 2 web server”sudo apt-get install apache2″ in the installation it will say do you want to Continue, type “y” to install it.

Ubuntu-2012-12-01-23-31-13

Next we need to install php5 programming language in ubuntu Linux, Type “sudo apt-get install php5” in the Terminal and press enter to install it.

Ubuntu-2012-12-01-23-37-38

After this we will Type this command “sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-php5” to connect with apache 2 web Server.After this we need to install MySQL database, Type this command in the terminal “sudo apt-get install mysql-server” to install  MySQL database in ubuntu Linux, after the installation mysql server will ask you for the root  password, Type the desire password e.g ubuntusql and press enter after this it will again ask you to retype you password enter the same password and press enter.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-00-01-34

After setting up the MySQL server on Ubuntu Linux its time to install phpmyadmin, Type “sudo apt-get install libapache2.mod-auth-mysql php5-mysql phpmyadmin”  and press enter, after installation process is over  Configuring phpmyadmin window will show up choose apache2 webserver and press enter.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-00-10-59

After some Configuration process this window wills show up type your Mysql Database password e.g. “ubuntusql” and press enter.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-00-15-42

After this another window will show up in that window type your desire phpmyadmin password e.g “ubuntuphp” and press enter, Type the same password again and press enter.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-00-21-29

Now your good to go everything has install in the system properly now we need to create a link in the /var/www  directory for easy access  to that type this “sudo ln -s /usr/share/phpmyadmin /var/www/phpmyadmin” in the Terminal and press enter.Now type this command “sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart” to restart apache.You can also start or stop apache2 by replacing restart with start or stop.

After that open Firefox or any web browser and type localhost, if you see the following screen that means apache2 server is working properly.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-00-42-45

To add web content on this server open up the var/www/ directory and create a html or php web file.

To test php locate the www directory by typing this command in the terminal “cd /var/www” after this type this “sudo touch test.php” to create a new php after that type this “sudo gedit test.php” and press enter, a code editor will open up; type this line of code ““in the test.php file to check if  php is working.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-01-02-24

Open up the web browse and type localhost/test.php in the url, if you see the following page that means php has properly installed on the system.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-01-00-59

Now Type localhost/phpmyadmin in the url to open phpmyadmin.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-00-47-07

Enter your Username and password,User name is “root” and the password is ubuntuphp yours will be different and click on go or just press enter. After logging in you will see the following screen.

Ubuntu-2012-12-02-01-09-56

Now everything is working fine to learn more about myself or php check my other posts.

Advertisements

Artifical Feelings and Emotions | Artificial Intelligence.

Artificial Feelings and Emotions  are consider as impossible but now it is possible to develop a Computer program that can process these kinds of data and using that program to create a realistic humanoid Robot that can have  feeling and emotions just like a homosapiens (Human), I have created an Algorithm that will show you the process required to create Artificial Feelings and Emotions. Note if you want to make this program you need to Know Programming, any programming language will work fine but i recommend using C, C++, C#, Java, C#, VB.net, python etc.

Let’s begin the process to create Artificial Feelings and Emotions (AIFE) step by step.

Creating Artificial Feelings

First thing the user does is Some Action which  will start up the program for example a user touches some part of the body, when user touches the body the program needs to know which part have been touched and how much force is exerted on that part and what is the temperature on that part .According to my observation human mode changes or different parts of the brains(Amygdala, Temporal lobe, occipital lobe, Cerebellum, Entorhinal Cortex etc.) are activated when some of their body parts is touched. Human Response differently when different word are spoken together or some sounds is generated for example when human hears music different parts of the brain activated and behave together and the human body begin to feel relax but it doesn’t means that they will always feel relax when music is played some human react opposite of it and there fiscal expression also changes.

In this process i will use my observation to create AIFE program, i will use the following algorithm in form of Diagram.

First user will give a command or perform an action that command will be process in AI Algorithm which is itself a program. AI Algorithm will look in Data file which is the brain of the program data file will contain all data for example “What is your name or age” Answer “Alexander VII age = 15” these data file can be xml files or an sql Database files it depends on you which language and what format you want to access or store data in these files. The user Command is searched in data file after getting the required info the info is then passed to the Translator which will convert the sentence in to different language even thou translator is not required but you can use it any way if you are making a very powerful program like i did, after this the translator will give the results which can be or understand by the user. To Activate the feeling process we will need an sensor connected to arduino or any hardware component which is capable of determining force when user touches the sensor or you can use any touch device for testing purposes but for this example i have used an arduino and piezoelectric sensors.

The Method is connecting the sensor in X,Y array position even thou there are some scientist who are making Robot skin sensor but these sensor are created in the same way. Connect the Sensors in Matrix and then connect it to the arduino also connect the arduino to the computer. we will be using arduino to determine which sensor is activated in which position and how much force is exerted on that particular sensor for example when a user touches a sensor in this case the user have touched the sensor x[4],Y[3] when the sensor is touched it produces a small current or signal which can be understand by the arduino. we will write a program for arduino in C++ or arduino language to use these signals to generate feelings, we also need to Connect the Arduino program to Ai Program so we can use these signal in our program to determine actions in Datafiles for example a user have touced a sensor in X[4], Y[3] position the sensor send the signal to the arduino microcontroller which is linked to the arduino debugger ,The program which have written for arduino to use sensors will send the results in this case it is X[4], Y[3] to AI program. Ai program will use the results and search for the information that have written for that particular results like “don’t touch me here or it hurts“. Example

if(X[4],Y3 = touch); {search.position X[4],Y[3] in datafile;} else {do nothing;}

Well i recommend combing the two values because it will produce some errors if you are making a real robot skin that can response to touch. Example

Combining X[4],Y[3] = 43

if(pos.int(43) = touch); {search.position[43]  in datafile;} else {do nothing;}

you can also  can use arrays, variables and switches. You can use the same process for the touch device like touch screen monitor.

When the Program has detected the position it will search an Answer or movement for that particular position with some tolerance but in this case there is no tolerance because i am using only 10 sensors and You can also measure how much force is exerted on the sensors and also the temperature with the same method as the position.

if(pos.int(43) = 5N); {search.Position[43+5N] in datafile} else {do nothing;}

you need to do a lot of programming to make it behave like a human does.

Emostion

To give emotion to your program you will be using the same method but you will be using feeling + Special Words to Control the behavior of the program for example i said a joke to a program the program will look special words or special sentences with respect to voice tone (which is another process to increase accuracy but you can leave it) in the Datafile and look for approximate movement in this case it is to laugh or smile, when the user told the a  joke the program will start to laugh but you can also use tiny motors to control facial expression of the robot you can also use fiscal expression algorithm or object recognition algorithm to connect to feeling or emotion for example when your sad or happy your fiscal expression changes the program will recognize the expression and tell you “cheer up” or something else.

this is it if you have some troubles write it in the comments and it will be dumb for robots to have feeling and emotion because robots are perfect but you can make a real human with integrated machines and electronics with feeling ,emotion and much more.

i Will also be writing another blog on self-learning and self-awareness algorithms and programs.

 

What is a MotherBoard

A Motherboard or Main board is a major and the most important part of a computer it is Printed Circuit Board  PCB which holds many of the crucial components of the system.Cpu, Ram, Video Card, NIC, Hard Drive, DVD Rom etc. is connected to the motherboard. A motherboard provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate. Unlike a backplane, it also connects the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices.

Here is close look of a motherboard

MotherBoards are Aviable in different forms and Sizes but every board is different then other and every form has it on case for example you can fit BTX MotherBoard into a ATX case because BTX is large in size.

Form Factor

Form factor is great way of describing a motherboard’s size and shape, impoertan because it involves industry-wide standards and ties with the computer case and power supply unit PSU.The most common motherboard is ATX(Advanced Technology eXtended).

Motherboard Sizes

ATX             = 305mm X 244mm

MiniATX   = 284mm X 208mm

MicroATX =  244mm X 244mm

FlexATX    =  229mm X 191mm

Balanced Technology eXtended

BTX             =  265mm X 325mm

MicroBTX  = 267mm = 263mm

PicoBTX     = 267mm X 203mm

Here is close look of a ATX motherboard

And here is a close look of a BTX moterboard

Thats it i hope you have learn the basic  information about motherboard.

How to install Autocad 2012

AutoCAD was one of the first Computer Aided Design programs to be made available on personal computers. It is built to help people design buildings, products, or public spaces, without having to draw up plans by hand. It was released in 1982 by Autodesk, Inc., and offered a personal solution to software that was before then released only for larger workstations. While CAD programs prior to AutoCAD required massive amounts of computing power in the form of gigantic computers, AutoCAD streamlined its operating and optimized it for the IBM PC, allowing people to work from home or on their own work computers. AutoCAD is easy to use Software design for engineers & designer for designing a product AutoCAD save its file in Dwg format which means drawing, this format is supported by many cad Software, you can download the latest version  of AutoCAD from Autodesk right Know the latest version is AutoCAD 2012 you can download the 30 days trial version or you can buy the Software i recommend that you just download the trial version right know if you like the Software and found this Software very useful then you can buy it.

How to Download and install AutoCAD

To Download AutoCAD fallow the following Steps.

  • Visit the Autodesk Website.
  • Create an account if you have already made an account just login.
  • Go to the product Section and click AutoCAD or you can search AutoCAD in the search bar.
  • Then click on download if you want to buy the Software you can click the buy Button.
  • After click on the download button you would see a download box click on save to download the software on to your Computer Memory.
  • It will take some time depending on the speed of your internet Speed.
  • After the Software has downloaded locate the AutoCAD setup file and double click on it.
  • Soon you would be promoted with AutoCAD installation setup when the setup has done loaded the necessary installation files.
  • Click on install.
  • Choose your region and accept the license agreement and click next.
  • Choose your license type and product information in this case i am choosing standalone license type and the software will be 30 days trial.

  •  After that browse your desire location or leave it to default and click install to install the Software on to the Computer memory.it will take 10 or 15 minutes to install, till then grab yourself a nice sandwich or potato chip.
  • When the software has install click cancel to close the setup box.
  • Click on the AutoCAD icon on the desktop or you can open the software from Start menu>programs>Autodesk>autocad2012>autocad.exe
  • After this AutoCAD would start to load the necessary files after few seconds you will be promoted to the AutoCAD interface.

Getting knowing the AutoCAD interface

AutoCAD 2012 is a very user friendly Software, and its interface is very neat and polished.

The tools in AutoCAD are located in the ribbon and are divided into tabs and each tab is dived in to panels and some tools are located in the fly out. you can see the image of the ribbon below.

To be continued

How to Cracking Oracle 11g


Download Windows Binary: thc-orakelcrackert11g.tar.gz

OrakelCrackert 1.00 released 20070926
=====================================
OrakelCrackert is an Oracle 11g database password hash cracker using a 
weakness in the Oracle password storage strategy. With Oracle 11g, case 
sensitive SHA1 based hashing is introduced. Storing passwords in a case 
sensitive way introduces more possible password combinations so 
password cracking takes longer. For example, the number of possible 
password combinations using a password generated out of the character 
set "[a-z][A-Z][0-9]#$_" where passwords start with a alpha character 
using is 52/65 * 65 ^ passlength. For an 8 position password this means 
254.915.850.312.500 combinations.

Since Oracle is still storing the DES based password hashes, an attack 
much faster than brute forcing can be launched for most (not all) 
passwords. To do so:

1 - Get both the Oralce < 11g and 11g password hash, for example by 
executing the query "select user, password, spare4 from sys.user$ where 
username = ".

2 - Crack the old DES based password hash (field "password") which is 
generated using the upper case version of the mixed case password 
(note: this is not applicable to all possible passwords in Oracle 11g).

3 - If the upper case password is found, calculate the SHA1 result of 
the ASCII value of the password followed by the salt (nibble 41-60 of 
field SPARE4) to the SHA1 based password hash (nibble 1-40 of field 
SPARE4). Do this for every upper/lower case combination possible until 
you have got a match.

4 - Voila!

Using a password generated out of the character set 
"[a-z][A-Z][0-9]#$_" where passwords start with a alpha character 
(currently supported by OrakelCrackert), the number of password 
combinations shrinks to 26/39 * 39 ^ length (= step 2) + 2 ^ length (= 
step 3). A full brute force for an 8 position password will now at 
maximum 'just' take 3.568.006.173.910 tries. This is about 77 times 
less than the original value.

Example:
========
select name, password, spare4 from sys.user$ where name = 'THC';
THC,435D0D3C8468DBC4,S:D39F4CC16573323279E5E4E16D359D6C55DCC09202B03D5D74B6841CEA2E

USER_PASS = ASCII(USER + GUESSED_PASS)
PASS_UPPER = ORACLEHASH(GUESSES_PASS)
FOR(ALL UPPER/LOWER CASE COMBINATIONS)
	PASS_SALT = ASCII(PASS + SALT)
	GUESSED_CASE = SHA1(PASS_SALT)
	IF(GUESSED_CASE == SPARE4)
		DONE!

With real-life data:
USER_PASS = ASCII(THC + THC#) = 0x54484354484323
PASS_UPPER = ORACLEHASH(0x54484354484323) = 0x435D0D3C8468DBC4
FOR LOOP (only the correct guess):
	PASS_SALT = ASCI(tHC# + 0x02B03D5D74B6841CEA2E) = 
0x7448432302B03D5D74B6841CEA2E
	GUESSED_CASE = SHA1(0x7448432302B03D5D74B6841CEA2E) = 
0xD39F4CC16573323279E5E4E16D359D6C55DCC092
	IF(0xD39F4CC16573323279E5E4E16D359D6C55DCC092 == 
0xD39F4CC16573323279E5E4E16D359D6C55DCC092)
		WE'VE GOT HIM!'

How to use my MySQL Server”Basics”

MySQL is a database to store the user information MySQL is free and Opensource  it is very easy to use,SQl stand for “structure query language.”

What is Database ?

This is one of the hardest topic to define but i will enplane you as easy as possible lets go, imagine an excel sheet on your mind then divide them into rows and columns and give the row a name like a,b,c,d and give the columns 1,2,3,4 then i want you to store “apple” in a1 if you did it then when you need a apple you would go to a1. this is like an array where the data is stores in specific memory and then pointing that memory to access that data.if you understand this then you know what is a database, a database is used to store large amount of data then application or web pages  use that database to access that data,a user can store there picture,music in a database a user can also password protect the data in a database.

How to install Mysql ?

To install MySQL Server on a windows here is the process you can choose your platform.

  • Download MySQL by visiting here .
  • Download the MySQL windows installer.
  • after Downloading install it on the computer.
  • Locate the directory where MySQL is installed and open it up.

after the above process it would open a console window ,type in password if you have entered any  in the installation process.so lets get started to use MySQL first enter the “help” command basically it will print the list of MySQL commands. To see the Databases enter this command “show databases;”   remember to put semi-colon at the end of the command or statement because it means the command or statement has ended.after typing this command you will see some databases that are created to use these databases we will use the “use” command and the name of the database(e.g. use test).to see tables inside the database we will use the “show tables;” remember we are using the test database, To see which database are you using use the “status;” command to see the current status of the database.under the current database you can see your current database that you are using.this command also shows which database server are you using which TCP port are you using and many more things.to create a database we will use “create database” command and the name of the database (e.g.”create database hello;”) this will create a hello database to see your database type the “show databases” command,To delete a database we will use the “drop database” command and the name of the database(e.g.”drop database hello“)this will completely remove every thing of the database that you have chosen remember to use this command with caution.to use our database that we have created we will then again use the “use” command.Let’s create a Table if you don’t know what is a table you can think of this way think a folder is a database and the files inside that folder are tables,to create a table we will use the ‘create’ command,(e.g.”create table infor (name varchar(25), address varchar(100), age int, pnumber varchar(12));”)so it will create a fields named info and inside that it will create varchar(variable character) which is 25 character long and it will create another varchar which is 100 character long then  int(integer) age and then varchar which is 12 character long.to see your tables that you have created type the “show tables” command it will the show your tables.if you want to see the content of  the infor table use the “describe” command and the name of the table(e.g.”describe infor;”)to erase a table we will use the “drop” command and the name of the table(e.g.”drop table infor”).to insert something in to a table for example our name, address etc.. we will use the “insert into” command and the name of the table.(e.g.”insert into infor values (“sik”, ” fake address”, 14, “5555-555-103”); “) remember string would be in quotes.after that we will select every thing using the “select * from” command and the name of the table(e.g.”select * from infor“) it will basically select every thing from infor table that is inside the “hello” database.if you want to see only address not the name and any other fields the we will use “select”command name of the field and the table name (e.g.”select address from infor”)it will echo the address that is stored in infor.to delete something from the table we will use the “delete from” command and table name then we will type “where” and the name of the field which is equal to content in the field.(e.g.”delete from infro where address=” fake address”).then enter this command “select * from infor” to see if the fake address has deleted or not.

End of MySQL Basics.

Storage Devices

In this topic we will discuss about Storage Devices and backup media which are as fallows

– HDD (hard Drive Disk)

  • Solid-State Disk
  • Magnetic Disk

-FDD (floppy Drive disk)

Optical Drives

  • CD
  • DVD
  • RW
  • blu-Ray

-Removable Stroage

  • Flash Drives(SD CARD, thumb drives, USB, Flash)
  • External CD-RW and hard-drive
  • Tape Drive
  • HOT & Non- Hot Swappable devices.

FDD (floppy Drive Disk)

in these days FDD does not use to much and they are very hard to fine Fdd comes in many different sizes and Memory the most popular is the 1.44 Megabytes (MB) an a 3.5 (90mm) disk.

some Computer have built in Floppy drive but some Computer dose not if you have floppy and you need to connect it with a modern Computer that dose not have a floppy drive then you will probably need a USB  floppy drive .in  floppy drive you can save data that are 1.44  MB in memory floppy drive contain magnetic disk to store data know a days people flash dive to store data in Gigabyte’s that why floppy drive are not use to much .

—————————————————————————————–

What is HDD ?

HDD (Hard-drive disk)

hard drive are used to store  an write data they are connected to mother Board or Main board operating System and programs are stored inside the hard drive they are 3 types of hard drive SATA & ATA, PATA, Scuzzy Drive  or SCSI Drive.

SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) & ATA

Modern computer use ATA drive to store large amount of data.

PATA or IDE Drive

PATA or IDE drive are old and not use to much in computer.

SCSI (Small Computer System interface)

SCSI drives offer faster data transfer speeds than it competitors ATA and IDE. Although ATA and IDE are common for desktop users, these drives do not offer as many features as SCSI which can foster the connection of multiple interfaces.

How Hard Drive Works ?

Hard drive is made of metal and it is very strong hard drive are tightly pack so no dust particles can get it hard drive contain a “platter” in which the data is stored this platter is a magnetic disk,data written and read by”head”,the “arm” move the head back and forth to write the data or read in the “platter”, the platter is move by “spindle” ,An “Actuator” is responsible for the move meant of the arm.So the spindle is spinning the platter and the actuator is reading  and writing  binary’s in the platter.Data are arrange in track in a platter,there are many track on a platter and track contain sectors a sector contain 512 byte’s of information there are million of sectors on a  platter, and those sectors make up the cluster.

SSD or Solid State Disk.

Solid state Disk is modern technology of storing data it is very fast and last longest then any other storing devices, a Solid State Disk contain Flash chips to store data,but hard drive use platter to store data solid state is much expensive the hard drive.

A hard Drive needs to know where to start the system it uses master boot record or MBR it is the first sector of the hard drive, in that tiny little sector boot signature and booting info stored it also contain info for your operating system for where to boot from,if your operating system does’t boot up then there is a problem in the MBR this problem can be fix by rewriting the MBR.

Optical Drives

CD or Compact disk are use to store data and to share it with others it is circular disk a cd has a storing capacity of 700mb.

DVD or Digital Versatile Disk  are used in the same way as CD but it can store a large amount of data as compare to cd. A dvd has a storing capacity of 4.4 Gb for Single layer and 8.5 Gb for dual layer.

Blu-ray Disk are used for sharing data but it has a lot of storage capacity a single layer blu-ray Disk has a storing capacity of 25 Gb and dual layer has a storing capacity of 50 Gb.it is expensive then the other disk as it can store a large amount of data.

Removable Storage 

Removable Storage are very useful for storing data,we can store data in Flash Drive or Memory stick and can plug and remove from the system and can plug into another system.

SD CARD

SD card are very small in size and can store large amount of data they are commonly used in cell phones, cameras,audio devices etc SD card comes in many different shapes and also with different storage capacity.

External Hard-drive

External hard drive are very useful if you need to transfer data from one computer to another. External hard drive have a usb port and a power connection but there are also external hard drive multi adapter where a user can connect ide or sata into that adapter and then connect’s the hard drive or Disk Drive then plug-in a usb cable in to a computer it is very useful if you have a laptop.

Multi External Drive Adapter

Tape Drive

Tape Drive are very use full if you have large scale of data it commonly used in industry or company to store a huge amount of data a user can use a tape drive to copy or backup all the data of all the computer or server automatically at night so if something happens then user can recover that data it also store data in a encryption so other people can’t access the data,a tape drive contain a magnetic tape where the data is stored it can contain up to 16 ,32 or more tape disk so users’s can save a lot of data.

End of Storage Chapter

How to Create a Free Website in 5 minutes.

Well you are probably wondering how would you make website in 5 minutes, if you fallow the steps you would have your own website in 5 min for free.

first we will get a domain name a domain name is the name of the website(e.g WWW.example.com)

to get a free domain visit com.nu and click on signup to create an account enter your personal information and click register know after that you are promoted with an email verification after verifying your account you can login in to your account, at the left side of the web page click on new project to set up your domain name; You will see 2 option Create redirect, Web space in this case click on web space so we can store our web pages in it, give the project a name and a description and choose your desire categories and hit Next then you will see a box that says enter a domain name give your desire name (http://www.chaosbit.eu.gp)  and hit next after few seconds your domain would be set up.

at bottom of  the web page you can see the ftp information if you don’t know what is a ftp it is file transfer protocol which is used to transfer file from the server to client. we would use an online ftp

client to send our webpages visit ftplive and copy your ftp information and paste it in to the text boxes and hit launch ftp browser after that you will see a file browser ,click on the www directory this is the folder in which we will upload our web pages to upload a web page click on browse select your html file or php file if you don’t know HTML or php you can learn it from w3schools .after uploading a web page visit your domain name and you can see  your website after few days your website would be index into search engines like bing, Google.yahoo.that all it

How to boot and run linux from USB Flash drive.

To boot linux from usb flash drive you need a USB Flash Drive around 2GB and you need to download some of the following Software.

1==>Download Universal USB Installer from here.

2==>Download a linux distro in this case i am using Kubuntu .

after that run the Universal USB Installer then it will ask you to agree the License Agreement click “a Agree” to agree the license agreement after that setup your slections page will appear

Then select your linux Distro that you have Downloaded e.g. “kubuntu”

Browse the linux distro that you have downloaded e.g.”kubuntu-11.10-desktop-i386″

Then Slect USB Drive the e.g.”H”

Then click “Create” to extract the content of the iso into the USB Flash Drive.

This process will take 4 or 5 minutes after that it will say completed “click cancel to close the  window” then restart the computer “Rember to plug the USB Drive into the computer”

then a boot screen will show(if boot screen dosen’t show go to your bios and select boot option and change to usb first or  you can go to boot option and select the USB Drive to boot )

Select Run linux to run the linux Operating System.

Know you run linux operating system from your USB Flash Drive .

How to use linux Commands.

To use Linux commands you need to understand the Linux command terminal or Linux Shell as some say, to start using Linux commands open the Shell or the command terminal you would see a console window in that window you type the Linux commands to do your works some Linux commands are as fallows.

 

File Commands

  • ls – Directory listing
  • ls -al -Show listing with hidden files
  • cd dir – change directory to dir
  • cd- change to home
  • pwd – show current directory
  • mkdir file – create a directory with a name file
  • rm file – remove a file
  • rm -r file – delete a directory file
  • cp file1 file 2 – copy file1 to file2
  • touch file – create a file
  • cat > file – places stander input into file

System Commands

  • date – show the current date and time
  • cal -show the calender
  • uptime – show current up time
  •  w – display who is online
  • whoami – who you are logged in as
  • finger user – display information about user
  • uname -a – show kernel information
  • cat /proc/cpuinfo – shows cou information
  • cat /proc/meminfo – shows memory information
  • man command – shows manual of a command
  • free – show memory and swap usage

Net Work

  • ping host – ping host and output the results
  • whois domain – get the information for the domain
  • dig domin – get DNS information for the domain
  • wget -x host – reverse look up host
  • wget file – download a file
  • wget -c file – continue a stopped download

Installation

  • install from source file
  • ./configure  – software configurations
  • make
  • make install – install the software
  • dpkg -i pkg.deb – install a debian package
  • rmp -uvh pkg.rpm – install a package (Rpm)

Process management

 

  • ps – display currently active processes
  • top – display all  running processes
  • kill – kill process
  • killall – kill all process

Search Commands

  •  grep pattern files – search for patterns in files
  • locate file – find all instances of files